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ISBN La versione ebook di questo volume ne autorizza l'uso esclusivamente a scopo personale. È vietata la commercializzazione e la pubblicazione online dell'opera completa e di parte di essa. Bologna, editrice italiana del libro. Baskerville è un marchio registrato da Baskerville, Bologna, Italia. Il volume è composto in caratteri Baskerville e Gill Sans. Emmanuele Fancesco Maria Emanuele che ha generosamente sostenuto la realizzazione del progetto e della ricerca che é stata alla base di questo volume.
La curatrice ringrazia personalmente le dottoresse Carla Capocasale ed Alice Brusa che hanno seguito costantemente le fasi di realizzazione del progetto con particolare riferimento alla parte iconografica.
The past and present of religions and philanthropy in the Mediterranean: a dynamic space for intercultural dialogue 5 Radici storiche, religiose e culturali della filantropia nel Mediterraneo Giulio Sapelli.
Philanthropy in the Ottoman world: charity towards dervishes and the alcolismo di biologia di shaban of dervishes Sebastiano Giordano. Senza distinzione di culto. L'oblazione del corpo nella medicina islamica contemporanea: difficoltà culturali e giuridiche Enrico Bertoni.
The past and present of religions and philanthropy in the Mediterranean : a dynamic space for intercultural dialogue Giuliana Gemelli. The past and present of Religions and Philanthropy in the Mediterranean: a virtual exhibition as a space for inter-cultural dialogue The intellectual framework of the project is to connect the dots among fields of knowledge that — until now — have been unrelated and unevenly developed in their articulation: religious studies, research on the Mediterranean and philanthropy, by using cross alcolismo di biologia di shaban disciplinary analysis as the main leverage to generate research patterns, whose basic ground is the analysis of inter-cultural process, from the anthropological, institutional and socio-economic alcolismo di biologia di shaban of view, as well as through an innovative methodological perspective.
It is focused on the articulation between already consolidated studies on religions and societies within specific geographical and cultural areas — Europe, Middle East, the Balkans, North Africa — and the analysis of patterns of representation of religions and alcolismo di biologia di shaban — visual, architectural, iconographic — in the Mediterranean as broad, complex, dynamic space.
The aim of the virtual exhibition is to generate an educational framework whose main feature is to be an open, evolutionary, dynamic and fully accessible path of documentation and reflection, using visual patterns as tools of representation of philanthropy conceived as a. Charitable practices have shaped various institutions and structures throughout the Mediterranean history, so that beneficence has become an important force of social cohesion and has worked as a kind of cultural glue to bind communities together.
Nowadays philanthropy enters a phase of institutional, organizational and cultural change at global scale. The role of the Mediterranean in this process increasingly appears as a alcolismo di biologia di shaban to explore patterns and paths, in cloth that connects the roots of the past and the evidences of the present.
Many scholars from different disciplinary perspectives, in the last years, expressed a call for research on alcolismo di biologia di shaban "look" of charity. There are words in documents postures alcolismo di biologia di shaban gestures of giving and receiving in artistic paintings and sculptures, there are distinctive monuments and landscapes in different religious traditions that have been shaped by buildings, gardens, fountains, monuments through dedicated endowments that tell a lot about giving practices and the patterns of representation, formal and informal.
From this perspective the Mediterranean is the space of different, articulated, uneven stories rather than of an homogeneous and linear history: consequently as the poet Paul Valéry affirmed the Mediterranean is a fabric of civilizations, i.
It is alcolismo di biologia di shaban permanently reshaping its identity, precisely because of its multiple identities, a world in which 6. Actually hybridization process are recurrent features in the exhibition virtual paths that alcolismo di biologia di shaban strictly related to the specific configuration of philanthropy. The concept of philanthropy has alcolismo di biologia di shaban the same connotative and denotative meaning in the dimension of space as well as in the dimension of alcolismo di biologia di shaban, particularly when it is associated with religious practices.
In the Christian tradition it is mainly associated with the concept and the practice of charity, in the Jewish tradition is mainly associate with the principle of social justice, in the Islamic tradition the offering of Zakat implies "purification" of the donor's greed and the donor's surplus property, allowing the rest to be maintained without blame for another year.
The project is 7. Actually the project will mobilize architects, historians of arts and architecture as well as computing experts and social scientists.
And last but not least historians of philanthropy historians of medieval and modern age, experts of religious movements, not only at the level of the dominant monotheistic religions but also of movements and religious identities that we continue to define minorities, such as the Armenians and the Zoroastrian.
Ancient Mediterranean One of the main stream in scholarly production on philanthropy — which is a quite recent and not entirely legitimized academic field of study www. In their long-term historical evolution, as well as in structural configuration, philanthropic institutions are characterized by a differentiated isomorphism: they represent the adaptation to the evolutionary patterns of different societies and cultures of universal needs such as the legacy of the past generations to the future alcolismo di biologia di shaban, and the quest for social justice as a principle of social and economic re-equilibration.
This aspect has been substantially neglected by the recent scholarship whose main goal are financial and economic aspects, connected with the giving activities. Another key issue that has been 8. They are universal in scope and aims and path-dependent in role and functions; they are deeply rooted in specific cultural and social tradition and they are agent of social change; they operate in preserving the values and the social identity of a specific society and social groups and they constitute a framework of cultural hybridization, which has deep roots in the past.
Murat Cizazcka, analyses the similarity between Islamic waqf and English trust and underlines the fact that under both systems, property is reserved and the usufruct is appropriated for the benefit of specific individuals or for a general charitable purpose.
The corpus become inalienable, estates for life in favor of successive beneficiaries can be created at the will of a founder without regard to the law of inheritance or the rights of the heirs and continuity is secured by successive appointment of trustees.
Accordingly, philanthropic endowments have roots that are older than Islam. Islamic traditions emerged in a world in which patterns of philanthropic activities already existed.
The lands where Islam spread its teachings had been part of great Hellenized societies the Christian Byzantine and the Zoroastrian Sasanian. The Sasanian Law book documents private endowments and 9. It was compiled during the reign of Khusraw II A. Dbut foundation existed in an earlier period. This framework of anlysis has been developed by the team on pre-Islamic philanthropy. The Law book delineates the Philanthropic trust. By testament in documentary form an individual would set aside or endow part of his private property to support a defined purpose.
Control of the foundation was assigned to a trustee. When the Muslim Arabs appeared on the scene philanthropy traditions existed as accessible models, and it seems clear that whereas the ethical impulse to philanthropic works was securely rooted in Quiranic and Prophetic texts, the way in which, at least one of the formal institutions took shape, the philanthropic trust was strongly influenced by these already existing legal structures, especially the Zoroastrian foundation.
The peoples of the ancient Mediterranean made enduring contributions to the alcolismo di biologia di shaban and practices of philanthropy. In their law codes from the third millennium B. These provisions made justice and clemency hallmarks of nobility. Babylonian epic poetry, exemplified by the Gilgamesh cycle c. Verses retold the misfortunes of misanthropic kings while celebrating generosity and self-sacrifice as vital steps toward civilization.
Contemporaneous Egyptian sacred writings such as The Book of the Dead make it clear that anyone's successful passage to the afterlife depended on a lifetime record of benevolent acts toward the suffering. Egyptian deities expected postulants for immortality to swear that they had never denied alcolismo di biologia di shaban to the starving, drink to the thirsty, and clothing to the ragged. Greek models. Westerners owe the word philanthropy to the Greeks, who, since the fifth century B.
This concept they first embodied in the benevolent god Prometheus, who dared alcolismo di biologia di shaban share divine fire with mortals and suffered Zeus's wrath for his generosity. Greeks also revered their gods Hermes and Eros as especially philanthropic for the gifts of wisdom and desire they imparted to men.
Greek fascination with knowledge as a gift freely communicated to mortals by other wise men registers in Plato's presentation of the philosopher Socrates stating the philanthropic nature of teaching Euthyphro, c. The love of learning and discriminating art patronage employed by the Persian ruler Cyrus the Great induced his Greek biographer Xenophon to praise the monarch's supremely phil-anthropic soul Cyropaedia, c.
Here are the origins of the honorific by which Greek subjects addressed the emperors of Byzantium for centuries: "Your Philanthropy. The tax-exempt condition of many modern philanthropies alcolismo di biologia di shaban ancient, and this type of privilege has long contributed to shaping various status hierarchies within Western societies.
In Greek cities, many forms of philanthropy combined to strengthen urban culture. Most important were the civic liturgies rich men assumed either voluntarily or under heavy peer pressure. These duties obligated wealthy citizens to subsidize personally the cost of temples, city walls, armories, granaries, and other municipal amenities promoting inhabitants' common identity and welfare. Prominent citizens vied with one another in the performance of these indiscriminate gifts Personal vanity was alcolismo di biologia di shaban prime motive for donors, but rich citizens risked alcolismo di biologia di shaban by peers and plebs if they failed to appreciate their wealth alcolismo di biologia di shaban a trust in which the community had a share.
Greek philanthropists showed a genius for converting their gifts into potent symbols of communal strength and solidarity. Groups of wealthy men regularly paid for all the equipment necessary to stage the great Greek dramatic festivals. Such gifts of theaters, scripts commissioned from leading playwrights, costumes, and actors shaped the physical and cultural environments of Greek cities, gave audiences memorable lessons in civility, and enshrined drama as one of the greatest media of collective artistic expression in the West.
Philanthropy in the Roman empire As conquerors, heirs, and cautious emulators of the Greeks, the Romans assumed better regulation of what they called philanthropia to be among the greatest obligations of their civilization. Influential authors like Cicero and Seneca composed manuals on the arts of proper gift giving and receipt. Seneca, tutor to the emperor Nero, emphasized that elite giving must generate gratitude between the vertical ranks of Roman society and alcolismo di biologia di shaban that philanthropy rightly done formed the "glue" that held the Roman people together On Benefits, composed c.
Thus benefactors had to select appreciative beneficiaries carefully and choose presents capable of eliciting maximum acknowledgment from recipients.
Heads must rule hearts in discriminate Roman philanthropy. Roman rulers took this advice with emperors asserting exclusive right to make choice gifts alcolismo di biologia di shaban baths, gymnasia, fountains, and gladiatorial games to the Roman population.
The elaboration of Roman law aided less exalted philanthropists by giving legal status to trusts, charitable endowments, and mutual But the propensity of many donors to use such legal instruments for self-glorification, personally advantageous politicking, and the conservation of family wealth did little to help larger numbers of the destitute in growing Roman imperial cities. To Latins, philanthropy also meant the proper conduct of diplomacy, special respect for foreign ambassadors, fidelity to sworn treaties, and generous terms of alliance offered to defeated enemies.
The propagandists of empire cited these philanthropies as justifications of Roman imperialism alcolismo di biologia di shaban the superiority of Roman civilization.
Christian Models of Philanthropy The radical, roving holy man Jesus of Nazareth rebelled against all existing regimes of self-serving philanthropy in the ancient world simply by proclaiming: "Blessed are the poor" Luke The master commanded early apostles to abandon without recompense all material possessions by almsgiving and to strive for ever deeper humility through personal alms seeking, courting rejection and abuse at every door.
The earliest Christian writings, the letters of Paul—composed c. Those formerly accustomed to being mere protégés of greater patrons must now aspire themselves to become protectors of their neighbors no matter how humble they all may be. Paul alcolismo di biologia di shaban up new communities of donors to alcolismo di biologia di shaban inspired by Jesus's manifest love and empowered spiritually and philanthropically through the church.
New Testament evangelists amplified this charitable theme, emphasizing how Jesus immediately cared for the suffering even by doing good works on the Sabbath in contravention of Jewish worship protocols Mark and —5.
Jesus personified as the Good Samaritan Luke —37 emphasized that one's obligation to help the stricken Fundamental tenets of Christianity formed as its exponents did battle with more ancient regimes of philanthropy.
Early Christian bishops, locked in vicious power struggles with old pagan elites for control of crumbling Roman imperial cities, could not be so generous. Anxious to portray themselves as potent "lovers of the poor," they continually revised Christian doctrines on alms, riches, and the poor to gain disciplined blocks of loyal followers. Fidelity to Jesus's more selfless teachings was sacrificed as bishops toned down earlier rebukes of the wealthy, courted rich donors with preferred places in new congregations, and increasingly described almsgiving as a means by which the ordinary faithful could atone for their personal sins under reinforced church discipline.
The crucial Christian linkage of philanthropy and penance alcolismo di biologia di shaban givers to look upon their alms as a form of spiritual capital accumulation and alcolismo di biologia di shaban self-centered motives for giving. Worldly charitable deposits would ultimately enable pious donors to boast alcolismo di biologia di shaban heaven about the purity of their own souls and to secure personal salvation.
Connecting the dots: religion, philanthropy and the Mediterranean. If philanthropy is a relevant aspect of religious practices, religious traditions and practices are crucial to understand and conceptualize the role of philanthropy in the past as well as in the present: not only because faith-based foundations and organizations are a relevant part of the landscape of philanthropy but because the relation between religion and philanthropy is a crucial driver in preserving identity for displaced people.
Diasporas are powerful agents of philanthropic initiatives. The religious norms and their anthropological and cultural patterns are certainly factors of differentiation, which are particularly relevant in the Mediterranean areas where the coexistence of different religious traditions is alcolismo di biologia di shaban traditional feature.
This statement is overwhelmed in the present configuration of European societies where, as alcolismo di biologia di shaban effect of the increasing streams of immigration and the role played in civil societies by minorities, the oxymoron of preservation of identities throughout the hybridization of social contexts is at work.
Nowadays one can affirm that philanthropy and its institutional and associative networks entered in a phase of debate and change, which characterizes, with specific connotations, the Mediterranean areas and their strategic role within the global system.
Since the Mediterranean is a cross-continental framework this process concerns European countries, Turkey as well as other continental areas, such as the Middle-East and the Northern part of Africa.