DANNI DA ALCOL
Between andacross German-occupied EuropeNazi Germany and its collaborators systematically murdered some six million Jewsaround two-thirds of Europe's Jewish population. Germany implemented the persecution in stages. Following Adolf Hitler 's appointment as Chancellor on 30 Januarythe regime built a network of concentration camps in Germany for political opponents and those deemed "undesirable", starting with Dachau on 22 March On 9—10 Novembereight months after Germany annexed AustriaJewish businesses and other buildings were ransacked, smashed or set on fire throughout Germany and Austria during what became known esser cifrato da alcolismo a Mogilev Kristallnacht the "Night of Broken Glass".
Eventually thousands of camps and other detention sites were established across German-occupied Europe. The segregation of Jews in ghettos culminated in the policy of extermination the Nazis called the " Final Solution to the Jewish Question ", discussed by senior Nazi officials at the Wannsee Conference in Berlin in January As German forces captured territories in the Eastall anti-Jewish measures were radicalized.
Under the coordination of the SSwith directions from the highest leadership of the Nazi Partykillings were committed within Germany itself, throughout occupied Europe, and within territories controlled by Germany's allies. Paramilitary death squads called Einsatzgruppenin cooperation with the German Army and local collaborators, murdered around 1. By mid, esser cifrato da alcolismo a Mogilev were being deported from ghettos across Europe in sealed freight trains to extermination camps where, if they survived the journey, they were worked to death or gassed.
The European Jews were targeted for extermination as part of a larger event during the Holocaust era, usually defined as beginning in January in which Germany and its collaborators persecuted and murdered other groupsincluding Slavs chiefly ethnic PolesSoviet citizens, and Soviet prisoners of warthe Romathe "incurably sick"political and religious dissentersand gay men.
Most Holocaust historians define the Holocaust as the enactment, between andof the German state policy to exterminate the European Jews. The third definition fails, Gray writes, to acknowledge that only the Jewish people were singled out for annihilation. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum defines the Holocaust as the "systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators",  distinguishing between the Holocaust and the targeting of other groups during "the era of the Holocaust".
The persecution and murder of other groups was much less consistent. For example, he writes, the Nazis regarded the Slavs as "sub-human", but their treatment consisted of "enslavement and gradual attrition", while "some Slavs—Slovaks, Croats, Bulgarians, some Ukrainians—[were] allotted a favored place in Hitler's New Order".
Dan Stonea specialist in Holocaust historiographydefines the Holocaust as the genocide of the Jews, whom the Nazis regarded not as racially inferior, deviant, or enemy nationals, as they did other groups, but as a " Gegenrasse : a 'counter-race', that is to say, not really human at all". But he writes that the Holocaust can only be understood as part of the "'Nazi empire' with its grandiose demographic plans".
This applied to Jews, Gypsies, and the handicapped. The logistics of the mass murder turned Germany into what Michael Berenbaum called a "genocidal state". Companies fired Jews and later used them as slave labor.
Universities dismissed Jewish faculty and students. German pharmaceutical companies tested drugs on camp prisoners; other companies built the crematoria. Victims were transported in sealed freight trains from all over Europe to extermination camps equipped with gas chambers.
Historians increasingly view the Holocaust as a pan-European phenomenon, or a series of holocausts impossible to conduct without the help of local collaborators. Without collaborators, the Germans would not have been able to extend the Holocaust across most of the continent.
Killings were systematically conducted in virtually all areas of occupied Europe —more than 20 occupied countries. Hundreds of thousands more died in the rest of Europe.
The Third Reich was a product of the continent esser cifrato da alcolismo a Mogilev well as the most destructive shaper of it. Medical experiments conducted on camp inmates by the SS were another distinctive feature. They included the head of the German Red Cross, tenured professors, clinic directors, and biomedical researchers.
Some dealt with sterilization of men and women, the treatment of war wounds, ways to counteract chemical weapons, research into new vaccines and drugs, and the survival of harsh conditions. One of Mengele's assistants said in that he was told to send organs of interest to the directors of the "Anthropological Institute in Berlin-Dahlem". Throughout the Middle Ages in Europe, Jews were subjected to antisemitism based on Christian theology, which blamed them for killing Jesus.
Even after the ReformationCatholicism and Lutheranism continued to persecute Jews, accusing them of blood libels and subjecting them to pogroms and expulsions. The esser cifrato da alcolismo a Mogilev embraced a pseudo-scientific racism that viewed Jews as a race whose members were locked in mortal combat with the Aryan race for world domination.
This did not mean that antisemitism had disappeared; instead it was incorporated into the platforms of several mainstream political parties. The political situation in Germany and elsewhere in Europe after World War I — contributed esser cifrato da alcolismo a Mogilev the rise of virulent antisemitism. Many Germans did not accept that their country had been defeated, which gave birth to the stab-in-the-back myth. This insinuated that it was disloyal politicians, chiefly Jews and communists, who had orchestrated Germany's surrender.
Inflaming the anti-Jewish sentiment was the apparent over-representation of Jews in the leadership of communist revolutionary governments in Europe, such as Ernst Tollerhead of a short-lived revolutionary government in Bavaria. This perception contributed to the canard of Jewish Bolshevism. The economic strains of the Great Depression led some in the German medical establishment to advocate murder euphemistically called "euthanasia" of the "incurable" mentally and physically disabled as a cost-saving measure to free up funds for the curable.
Rosenberg's vision of a secretive Jewish conspiracy ruling the world would influence Hitler's views of Jews by making them the driving force behind communism. He viewed Marxism as a Jewish doctrine, said he was fighting against " Jewish Marxism ", and believed that Jews had created communism as part of a conspiracy to destroy Germany. With the appointment in January of Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of Germany, and the Nazi's completed seizure of powerGerman leaders proclaimed the rebirth of the Volksgemeinschaft "people's community".
Enemies were divided into three groups: the "racial" or "blood" enemies, such as the Jews and Roma; political opponents of Nazism, such as Marxists, liberals, Christians, and the "reactionaries" viewed as wayward "national comrades"; and moral opponents, such as gay men, the work-shy, and habitual criminals. The latter two groups were to be sent to concentration camps for "re-education", with the aim of eventual absorption into the Volksgemeinschaft.
Before and after the March Reichstag electionsthe Nazis intensified their campaign of violence against opponents,  setting up concentration camps for extrajudicial imprisonment. Throughout the s, the legal, economic, and social rights of Jews were steadily restricted. Works by Jewish composers,  authors, and artists were excluded from publications, performances, and exhibitions.
The Deutsches Ärzteblatt a medical journal reported on 6 April "Germans are to be treated by Germans only. The Nazis used the phrase Lebensunwertes Leben life unworthy of life in reference to the disabled and mentally ill. The courts reached a decision in 64, of those cases; 56, were in favor of sterilization. In October Hitler signed a "euthanasia decree" backdated to 1 September that authorized Reichsleiter Philipp Bouhlerthe chief of Hitler's Chancelleryand Karl BrandtHitler's personal physician, to carry out a program of involuntary "euthanasia"; after the war this program was named Aktion T4.
In addition there were specialized killing centres, where the deaths were estimated at 20, according to Georg Renno, the deputy director of Schloss Hartheimone of the "euthanasia" centers, or , according to Frank Zeireis, the commandant of the Mauthausen concentration camp. Although not ordered to take part, psychiatrists and many psychiatric institutions were involved in the planning esser cifrato da alcolismo a Mogilev carrying out of Aktion T4 at every stage.
University of Tübingen received 1, bodies from executions between and The neuroscientist Julius Hallervorden received brains from one hospital between and "I accepted these brains of course. Where they came from esser cifrato da alcolismo a Mogilev how they came to me was really none of my business.
The former said that only those of "German or kindred blood" could be citizens. Anyone with three or more Jewish grandparents was classified as a Jew. On 12 MarchGermany annexed Austria. Austrian Nazis broke esser cifrato da alcolismo a Mogilev Jewish shops, stole from Jewish homes and businesses, and forced Jews to perform humiliating acts such as scrubbing the streets or cleaning toilets.
AboutAustrian Jews had left the country by Mayincluding Sigmund Freud and his family, who moved to London. The government claimed it was spontaneous, but in fact it had been ordered and planned by Esser cifrato da alcolismo a Mogilev Hitler and Joseph Goebbelsalthough with no clear goals, according to David Cesarani. The result, he writes, was "murder, rape, looting, destruction of property, and terror on an unprecedented scale".
Groups of Jews were forced by the crowd to watch their synagogues burn; in Bensheim they were made to dance around it, and in Laupheim to kneel before it. The damage was estimated at 39 million Reichmarks. The Times of London wrote on 11 Esser cifrato da alcolismo a Mogilev "No foreign propagandist bent upon blackening Germany before the world could outdo the tale of burnings and beatings, of blackguardly assaults upon defenseless and innocent people, which disgraced that country yesterday.
Either the German authorities were a party to this outbreak or their powers over public order and a hooligan minority are not what they are proudly claimed to be. Between 9 and 16 November, 30, Jews were sent to the BuchenwaldDachauand Sachsenhausen concentration camps.
Insurance payments for damage to their property were confiscated by the government. A decree on 12 November barred Jews from most remaining occupations. There were anti-Jewish pogroms in around towns in Poland between and and again in The rest of the country, with a pre-war esser cifrato da alcolismo a Mogilev of 3.
There, the Jews were concentrated in ghettos in major cities,  chosen for their railway lines to facilitate later deportation. Instead, they were viewed as part of a policy of creating a esser cifrato da alcolismo a Mogilev reservation to contain them.
According to Jan T. Grossesser cifrato da alcolismo a Mogilev to 1, men, women and children died;  an archeologist who exhumed some esser cifrato da alcolismo a Mogilev the bodies in placed the death toll at — Denmark was overrun so quickly that there was no time for an organized resistance to form.
Consequently, the Danish government stayed in power and the Germans found it easier to work through it. Because of this, few measures were taken against the Danish Jews before From Germany they were sent by freight train to Auschwitz.
According to Dan Stoneonly nine survived the war. After Belgium's surrender, it was ruled by a German military governor, Alexander von Falkenhausenwho enacted anti-Jewish measures against the country's 90, Jews, many of whom were refugees from Germany or Eastern Europe.
Jews were forced out of their jobs and had to register with the government. In Februarynon-Jewish Dutch citizens staged a strike in protest that was quickly crushed. Most were sent to the extermination camp at Auschwitz ; the first transport of 1, Jews left Holland for Auschwitz on 15 July Between 2 March and 20 July34, Jews were sent in 19 transports to the Sobibór extermination campwhere all but 18 are thought to have been gassed on arrival.
France had approximatelyJews, divided between the German-occupied north and the unoccupied collaborationist southern areas in Vichy France named after the town Vichy. The occupied regions were under the control of a military governor, and there, anti-Jewish measures were not enacted as quickly as they were in the Vichy-controlled areas.
Yugoslavia and Greece were invaded in April and surrendered before the end of the month. Germany and Italy divided Greece into occupation zones but did not eliminate it as a country.
Yugoslavia, home to around 80, Jews, was dismembered; regions in the north esser cifrato da alcolismo a Mogilev annexed by Germany and regions along the coast made part of Esser cifrato da alcolismo a Mogilev.
The rest of the country esser cifrato da alcolismo a Mogilev divided into the Independent State of Croatianominally an ally of Germany, and Serbiawhich was governed by a combination of military and police administrators. One difference between the Germans and Croatians was that the Ustashe allowed its Jewish and Serbian victims to convert to Catholicism so they could escape death. Germany invaded the Soviet Union on 22 Junea day Timothy Snyder calls "one of the most significant days in the history of Europe Total Soviet losses are difficult to estimate, but a figure of at least twenty million seems likely.