TRANS SIBERIAN TO IRKUTSK! - Trans Siberian Railway Journey Irkutsk, Russia
Many distinguished Russians were sent into exile in Irkutsk for their part in the Decembrist revolt ofand the city became an exile-post for the rest of the century. Some of the fine wooden houses still survive, contrasting with the dominant Soviet architecture. When the railway reached Irkutsk, it had earned the nickname of "The Paris of Siberia. Irkutsk was named after the Irkut Riverwhose name was derived from the Buryat word for "spinning" and was used as an ethnonym among local tribes as YrkhuIrkitIrgitand Irgyt.
The city was formerly known as "Yandashsky" after the local Tuvan chief Yandasha Gorogi. Locals like to think of their city as "middle of earth".
In Codificazione dIrkutsk da alcolismo in Irkutsk, Ivan Pokhabov built a zimovye winter quarters near the site of Irkutsk for gold trading and for the collection of fur Codificazione dIrkutsk da alcolismo in Irkutsk from the Buryats.
InYakov Pokhabov built an ostrog a small fort nearby. The first road connection between Moscow and Irkutsk, the Siberian Routewas built inand benefited the town economy. Many new products, often imported from China via Kyakhtabecame widely available in Irkutsk for the first time, Codificazione dIrkutsk da alcolismo in Irkutsk golddiamondsfurwoodsilkand tea. Irkutsk became the major center of intellectual and social life for these exiles, and much of the city's cultural heritage comes from them; many of their wooden houses, adorned with ornate, hand-carved decorations, survive today, in stark contrast with the standard Soviet apartment blocks that surround them.
By the end of the 19th century, there was one exiled man for every two locals. People of varying backgrounds, from members of the Decembrist uprising to Bolshevikshad been in Irkutsk for many years and had greatly influenced the culture and development of the city.
As a result, Irkutsk eventually became a prosperous cultural and educational center in Eastern Siberia. Bythe city had earned the nickname of "The Paris of Siberia. During the Russian Civil Warwhich broke out after the October RevolutionIrkutsk became the site of many furious, bloody clashes between the " Whites " and the " Reds ". InAleksandr Kolchakthe once-feared commander of the largest contingent of anti-Bolshevik forces, was executed in Irkutsk, which effectively destroyed the anti-Bolshevik resistance.
Irkutsk was the administrative center of the short-lived East Siberian Oblastwhich existed from to During the communist years, the industrialization of Irkutsk and Siberia in general was heavily encouraged. The large Irkutsk Reservoir was built on the Angara River between and in order to facilitate industrial development.
The Epiphany Cathedral, the governor's palace, a school of medicine, a museum, a military hospital and the crown factories are among the public institutions and buildings. In December74 people in Irkutsk died in a mass methanol poisoning. Init was reported men in Irkutsk only survive on average to The Irkut Riverfrom which the town takes its name, is a smaller river that joins the Angara directly opposite the city.
The two main parts of Irkutsk are customarily referred to as the "left bank" and the "right bank", with respect to the flow of the Angara River. Irkutsk is situated in a landscape of rolling hills within the thick taiga that is typical in Eastern Siberia. According to the regional plan, Irkutsk city will be combined with its neighboring industrial towns of Shelekhov and Angarsk to form a metropolitan area with a total Codificazione dIrkutsk da alcolismo in Irkutsk of over a million.
Irkutsk originally had a borderline subarctic climate Köppen climate classification Dwc. Sincethe temperatures have resembled a humid continental climate Köppen climate classification Dwb. Snow cover disappeared earlier, from late April in the s to late March in the s. Irkutsk is characterized by an extreme variation of temperatures between seasons. It can be very warm in the summer, and very cold in the winter.
However, Lake Baikal has a tempering effect thanks to which temperatures in Irkutsk are not as extreme as elsewhere in Siberia. Precipitation also varies widely throughout the year, with July also being the wettest month, when precipitation averages millimeters 4. The driest month is February, when precipitation averages only 7. Almost all precipitation during the Siberian winter falls as flurry, dry snow. Irkutsk is the administrative center of the oblast and, within the framework of administrative divisionsit also serves as the administrative center of Irkutsky District even though it is not a part of it.
The coat of arms of Irkutsk features an old symbol of Dauria : a Siberian tiger with a sable in his mouth. When the coat of arms was devised inthe animal was described as a tiger "babr", a bookish word of Persian derivation with a sable in his mouth. This image had been used by the Yakutsk customs office from about It has its origin in a seal of the Siberia Khanate representing a sable and showcasing the fact that Siberia or rather Yugra was the main source of sable fur throughout the Middle Ages.
Actually, the English word "sable" is derived from the Russian "sobol". By the midth century, the word "babr" had fallen Codificazione dIrkutsk da alcolismo in Irkutsk of common usage, but it was still recorded in the Armorial of the Russian Empire.
Furthermore, the tigers became extinct in this part of Siberia. In the s, a high-placed French heraldist with a limited command of Russian assumed that "babr" was a misspelling of "bobr", the Russian word for " beaver ", and changed the wording accordingly. This modification engendered a long dispute between the local authorities, who were so confused by the revised description that they started to depict the "babr" as a fabulous animal, half-tiger and half-beaver. The Soviets abolished the image altogether, but it was restored following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The The construction of the dam started Codificazione dIrkutsk da alcolismo in Irkutsk and finished in The Federal road Codificazione dIrkutsk da alcolismo in Irkutsk railway to Moscow Codificazione dIrkutsk da alcolismo in Irkutsk Vladivostok pass through the other side of the Angara River from central Irkutsk. Trams are one major mode of public transit in Irkutsk. Other modes are trolleybus, bus, fixed-route taxi marshrutka and cycling.
Despite its remoteness, Irkutsk was reported in to have the highest HIV infection rate in Russia. Although the epidemic, which started inis reported to have slowed Codificazione dIrkutsk da alcolismo in Irkutsk, Irkutsk will lose tens of thousands of its working age population from onwards. This is one of the reasons Irkutsk's male life expectancy, at 53 years, is one of the lowest in all of Russia. Preventive measures are in place to prevent the spread of the epidemic to the generation which was born after the breakup of the USSR.
Irkutsk was home to the well-known Russian writer Valentin Rasputin ; many of his novels and stories take place in the Angara Valley. An essay on the cultural history of Irkutsk and another one about the nearby Lake Baikal is included in Rasputin's non-fiction collection Siberia, Siberiawhich is also available in an English translation.
Irkutsk  is a point of interest for tourists with its numerous museums and old architecture. Numerous old wooden buildings from villages in the Angara valley, which have been flooded after the construction of the Bratsk Dam and Ust-Ilimsk Damhave been transported to the museum and reassembled there.
One of the centerpieces of the collection is a partial recreation of the 17th-century ostrog fortress of Ilimsk, which consists of the original Spasskaya Tower and the Church of Our Lady of Kazan Codificazione dIrkutsk da alcolismo in Irkutsk from the flooded ostrog in the mids, to which an exact modern copy of another tower of the ostrog and the Southern wall of the fortress were added in the early s.
Its mission is "to protect and enrich the flora of the Lake Baikal area and the world for people through public education, collection, propagation, research, and conservation of plants". The garden is mainly an educational and scientific tool for the Irkutsk State University and maintains the largest plant collection of living plants in Eastern Siberia more than plant taxaa herbarium, and a seed bank.
It has a federal status of especially protected land and a nature memorial of Irkutsk. Irkutsk is also home to several theaters, including the Okhlopkov Drama Theater, one of Russia's oldest. Bandy is popular in the city. There are several clubs, most notably Baykal-Energiya  of the Russian Bandy Super Leaguewhich can draw spectator crowds of 30, In Irkutsk, there are sports facilities, of which are municipal ones.
Among them there are 23 swimming pools, 14 ski bases, a sports palace, courts, gyms, an athletics arena, a racetrack, 7 stadiums — TrudRekordDynamo, Zenit, Aviator, Lokomotiv-2, sports complex of Irktusk and the main football arena — Lokomotiv for 3 thousand seats.
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